Greatest Stories Ever Told - "Jack Straw"
By David Dodd
Here’s the plan—each week, I will blog about a different song, focusing, usually, on the lyrics, but also on some other aspects of the song, including its overall impact—a truly subjective thing. Therefore, the best part, I would hope, would not be anything in particular that I might have to say, but rather, the conversation that may happen via the comments over the course of time—and since all the posts will stay up, you can feel free to weigh in any time on any of the songs! With Grateful Dead lyrics, there’s always a new and different take on what they bring up for each listener, it seems. (I’ll consider requests for particular songs—just private message me!)
Of all the greatest of the Grateful Dead’s great story songs, I think “Jack Straw” might deserve some kind of an award for managing to be the most fully-fleshed-out and the most enigmatic of all. And I think the enigma revolves around the ambiguity in one line in particular.
The performance evolution of “Jack Straw” is unique among Grateful Dead songs. When it was first performed, on October 19, 1971 (along with five other first-time performances) at Northrup Auditorium, University of Minnesota, the song’s various characters were sung entirely by Bob Weir. Hunter’s lyrics, however, clearly called for a differentiation in voice, and so, beginning in Paris on May 3, 1972, Garcia stepped in and the song became a dramatic telling featuring two distinct character voices, plus a narrator.
I think of the song as the cornerstone of an unrecorded studio album, post-Workingman’s Dead / American Beauty, and preceding the three Grateful Dead Records studio albums. I really wish the album did exist (and some claim that it does: it’s called Europe ’72 — but even a doctored live album can never take the place of the studio treatment, and I am a fan of the Dead’s studio recordings). This phantom studio album would include “Jack Straw,” “Brown Eyed Women,” “Wharf Rat,” “He’s Gone,” “Ramble On Rose,” “Tennessee Jed,” “Bertha,” “Cassidy,” and “Playing in the Band.” Or something like that. At some point Hunter lamented the fact that the songs in that batch never got the studio treatment, and I have to say, I concur. (In much the same way, I wish there had been one final studio album, to capture “Days Between,” “So Many Roads,” and others.)
Weir, in a couple of interviews, tells about the origin of “Jack Straw”:
"I had just read Of Mice and Men for about the tenth time. I was completely smitten by that story. I took a step back in time into the Depression, and that era, and this story emerged between me and Hunter about these two guys on the lam... ne'er-do-wells... victims of the Depression." (March 2004)
"I don’t watch much TV, but one night I was home, it was late, and an old version of Steinbeck’s ‘Of Mice and Men’ came on. I was mesmerized. We were coming out of the Workingman’s Dead phase, and Hunter had this lyric. I grabbed it, and we came with a little sketch of heartland Americana, a balled about two ne’er-do-wells. It was patterned on Of Mice and Men, but we tried to put a twist or two on it. Same story, different context.” (May 2007)
The two “ne’er-do-wells” are named in the song as Shannon (Garcia) and Jack Straw (Weir). Here’s how the dialogue shakes out. Note that besides the two characters, who each sings his own lines as appropriate, there is a third person, the narrator, who is sung by Weir, Garcia, and Lesh.
Narrator: "We can share ..."
Shannon: "I just jumped the watchman ..."
Jack Straw: "Hurts my ears to listen, Shannon ..."
Jack Straw: "We used to play for silver ..."
Narrator: "Leaving Texas 4th day of July ..."
Shannon: “Gotta go to Tulsa…”
Jack Straw: “There ain’t no place a man can hide…”
Narrator: "Jack Straw from Wichita cut his buddy down..."
The link to the lyrics at the top of the page will show the complete breakdown.
OK, so here’s the ambiguity that I see, and which numerous commentators have pointed out (take a look at www.well.com/deadsongs for a rather lengthy series of opinions about the narrative thread of the song). In the second verse, Jack Straw admonishes Shannon for having “cut down a man in cold blood,” stating that it “might as well” have been him—i.e., that in committing murder, Shannon had condemned both of them to charges of murder, and therefore capital punishment.
Later in the song, however, Jack Straw “cut his buddy down.” Now, that could be read two completely different ways: either he killed Shannon, or he cut him down from a scaffold and gave him a decent burial before lighting out to avenge him—“one man gone and another to go.”
I admit, it’s a stretch, but the song could work either way.
In Robert Hunter’s A Box of Rain, the song is printed with some of the lines in italics, an indicator elsewhere in the same anthology that these lines were not Hunter’s, but written by another—in the case of “Sugar Magnolia,” for instance, the lines are explicitly footnoted: “Lyrics in italics were written by Robert Weir.” Following that same convention, Weir’s contribution to “Jack Straw” included three verses: 1) “Hurts my ears to listen...” 2) We used to play for silver...” and 3) Ain’t no place a man can hide...”
The song includes a number of motifs and themes common throughout the repertoire: trains, down-and-out characters, gambling, weather, birds... It’s a bleak vision, but the playing lends it a great deal of energy. Going back to that first Brent Mydland show at Spartan Stadium in San Jose, his first song with the band was “Jack Straw,” and the jam leading up to “Jack Straw from Wichita, cut his buddy down,” was a juggernaut of thundering intensity.
It’s unfortunate that the opening lines of the song are often taken by listeners at face value—I always felt very strange about the roar that would emerge at the lines “we can share the women, we can share the wine.” In fact, as has been pointed out, that attitude led our pair of ne’er-do-wells onto a path of self-destruction. I’d be interested in hearing if anyone else heard that at shows—that inappropriate roar of approval—kind of like the line in “Baba O’Riley”: “You’re all wasted!” Hmmmm...and that’s a good thing?
But maybe I’m projecting my own values a bit too much. Once again, it’s up to the listener to decide.
Regardless, this song frequently brought a shot of adrenaline to a show, and its message of friendship gone astray and lives wasted might make us pause. And hey—it pays to read Steinbeck! (Or at least watch movies of his books on TV…)
"another to go" is one's own self, I think, as perpetrator of those final actions in the song, committing a murder (even of an oppressor) and digging the victim just a shallowly expedient grave--"You're next," I think (meaning "I'm," as much as any other "you"), in a retributive or karmic sense: you've got a long way to go to redeem yourself out of the events shared in this narrative, but you're moving much too slow. ("One man gone" can even refer to you, too, gone down morally in all these acts, maybe, before the other you who has to come from them.)
(David, I think it is a killing at the end, and not perhaps Jack Straw cutting his hanged buddy down from the tree or gallows. The course of the narrative increases Shannon's oppressive and aggressive weight so that I think the act outside Tucson is what he has coming from the jack straw maybe set up for this ambiguous moral lesson. [Could be overinterpreting now.] And the climactic force of the music following the accusing "You keep us on the run" evokes such a dramatic act. There's some sure, or mere, tenderness, though, for the killed companion, his buddy, that Jack Straw "dug FOR him a shallow grave," maybe as good as he could give him.)
Another great post, thank you David!
That is interesting, I didn't know that Bob Weir wrote some of the verses for this song. Like I feel about many GD songs, I feel that this song is partly about playing in a band, especially the verse "we used to play for silver..." This may be a stretch but I always felt this verse was specifically about playing in a band and how that fits with the duality of life (or whatever you call it...Im not great with words...balancing good and evil) But when they started out (playing for silver) they were dirt poor, living of off Bear and I think Jerry and Robert Hunter used to live in their cars, right? So maybe they just started doing what they knew best and could hopefully get some bread from it. Well, by 1972, things had changed too many times too count, but the one thing that hadn't changed was that they were still playing and its probably impossible to stop this train now (the breaks dont work on this grade so steep...) and now they play for life. But there is still the business behind it all, which Im sure is the last thing anyone in the band wanted to think about but its no secret. "one's for sport and one's for blood..." or fun AND money. "now the die is shaken now the die must fall..." how many of their contemporaries either died or faded away? They ain't no winner because if you are still alive you are always chasing the rush that music creates or can create. This may be quite a stretch but this is what my simple mind has always perceived this verse to be about...and I rarely get this far out there (seriously).
I've always liked how the song starts out slow, like a train leaving the station... and gradually builds up speed.
the whole resonance with Jack Straw the historical figure. (The current British politician by the same name was probably not on Hunter's mind).
I remember hearing the instrumental part after "you keep us on the run" in my dorm room years ago, and "getting it." So beautiful.
Jack Straw was my Dead "getting it" song (listening to Europe '72, my gold-standard version), so it holds a very special place in my head and heart. "We can share what we got of yours/'Cause we done shared all of mine" was the part that resonated first -- I was in need of some sharing myself at the time, so I immediately hooked onto those lines as they hooked into me.
The first few hundred times I listened to the song, I heard "Jack Straw from Wichita SHOT his buddy down," so there was never any doubt in my mind about what happened at that point in the story. I suppose that my optimistic side doesn't want to believe that Jack Straw killed his friend, but given his "might as well be me" proclamation, I'm pretty sure that he did.
I do love this song.
to puzzle over and discuss. I'm not sure what my favorite version is-I generally always like the one I'm hearing at that point in time. Enigmatic? Yes. Endlessly fascinating to try to parse-again Yes. Sort of like reading Henry James-"Turn of the Screw" -endless speculation about what did or did not occur. Timeless art. The "we can share..." line is necessary for character development going into that space and tale with those characters in that story.
I always love to read an article that mentions my favorite all-time show!! 4/22/79 does have one of the greatest "Jack Straw"s and I agree that the abovementioned jam is quite awesome. I also love the "Sugaree" and "Passenger" from the first set. Then there's an amazing "Scarlet>Fire" in set two, and the entire Estimated>He's Gone>Drumz>The Other One>Wharf Rat>Around sequence which is mesmerizing from start to finish. Dig that "Drumz" featuring the Beast and a lot of interesting rhythms from Mickey & Billy. No "Space" though... Oh yes gotta love the "Shakedown Street" encore.
I've always hoped for a 4/22/79 vault release but I don't think this one exists in the vault in complete form... (I've asked Dave Lemieux a number of times and I think he's tired of me asking!!! Sorry, Dave.)
This is a great tune musical wise. The evolution from slower to faster was fascinating to see evolve. Like a lot of the Dead's tunes where death occurs there tends to be a lot of energy. It seemed in the last 5 years or so they were just about screaming the last verse.
About the lyrics. There never was a train called The Detroit Lightning but the words make sense if you say the Detroit lighting (leaving) out of Santa Fe. The Great Northern probably originated out of Missoula, Montana.
The last verse I do consider to be enigmatic but my interpretation is that Jack Straw cut Shannon down like the other characters in the song -- the watchman, the score to settle in Tulsa. The enigmatic part for me is that after saying this the narrator goes on to say "One man down and another to go." But a couple of verses repeat in this song, so... who can say but Bob and Robert?
The geography suggests yet another interpretation. We have Jack Straw from Wichita cutting down a watchman, presumably in Texas. The pair leave and catch a train out of Santa Fe, then one out of Cheyenne. Then Jack Straw decides they have to catch the first train going to Tulsa. What happens in Tulsa is never clear and the extra lyrics seem to provide a clue there. Lastly Jack Straw cuts down (and I think this means kill) somebody, perhaps not Shannon, half a mile from Tuscon. Could have been his new buddy.
As for "We can share..." It never bothered me. But I didn't cheer during songs. I listened to them.